Background and Aim: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful, degenerative inflammatory disease of the synovial joints. Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to decrease OA pain can have severe side effects, such as gastric irritation, ulcers, and heart problems. Natural products are extensively used to minimize OA-associated pain and inflammatory reactions. Lilium lancifolium is commonly used to alleviate several diseases through its anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the impact of L. lancifolium extract on alleviating pain and inflammation associated with articular cartilage damage.
Materials and Methods: Hydro-ethanol extracts of the L. lancifolium bulb were used. The experimental animals (adult beagle dogs) were divided into four groups: sham, which received neither treatment nor surgery; placebo, which received an empty gelatin capsule; glucosamine, which received glutamine (60 mg/kg); and L. lancifolium, which received an L. lancifolium extract-filled (60 mg/kg) gelatin capsule for 8 weeks. OA was induced by an expert orthopedic surgeon in 2-year-old dogs through resection of cranial cruciate ligament and lateral collateral ligament. Inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, lameness score, radiology, and histological changes were assessed.
Results: Our experiments showed that long-term oral therapy with L. lancifolium alleviated inflammation and increased histological damage. L. lancifolium treatment effectively reduced cytokines, such as interleukin-6, metalloproteinase-9, leukotriene-4, prostaglandin, and cyclo-oxygenase in dogs with OA, suggesting the potential to minimize inflammatory reactions in OA. L. lancifolium showed anti-inflammatory qualities in dogs with OA. This effect was comparable with that of glucosamine OA treatment.