Metabolic and Lipidomic Profiling of Vegetable Juices Fermented with Various Probiotics
Fermented vegetable juices have gained attention due to their various beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we employed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, direct
infusion-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to identify useful metabolites, lipids, and carotenoids in vegetable juice (VJ) fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum
HY7712, Lactobacillus plantarum HY7715, Lactobacillus helveticus HY7801, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis HY8002. Atotal of 41 metabolites, 24 lipids, and 4 carotenoids were detected in the fermented and non-fermented VJ (control). The lycopene, -carotene, and -carotene levels were higher in VJ fermented with L. plantarum strains (HY7712 and HY7715) than in the control. Proline content was also elevated in VJ fermented with HY7715. Uracil, succinic acid, and -carotene concentration was increased in VJ fermented with HY7801, while glycine and lycopene levels were raised in VJ fermented with HY8002. This study confirmed that each probiotic strain has distinctive characteristics and produces unique changes to metabolic profiles of VJ during fermentation. Our results suggest that probiotic-fermented VJ is a promising functional beverage that contains more beneficial metabolites and carotenoids than commercial non-fermented VJ.